Master the use of reverb and your lifeless, two-dimensional mix will become a three dimensional panorama, says Steve Hillier.
Things that people do wrong with their music:
1. Write a composition starting with the drums. This is madness. Can you imagine Lennon and McCartney waiting for Ringo to set up his drum kit before writing their next Beatles smash? Obviously not.
2. Compress everything. At least twice. Anyone doing this in their mixes should stop now. Modern DAWs have an internal dynamic range that’s comparable to a pin dropping versus the sound of the big bang. Try using it, rather than squashing your music to the flatness of a pancake being sucked into a black hole . Compressors are like guns…only the sane should ever pick one up.
3. Use reverb badly, or not at all…
Unlike compression, everyone likes reverb. How can I say this with such confidence? Because nearly everything you’ve ever heard has been covered with reverb. Everything. Reverberation is what you hear when the sound from an event, such as a gun shot, bounces off a reflective surface, such as a wall, and then into our ears. It’s a fundamental attribute of how we experience sound, and our brains have evolved to use the information contained in reverb to help us survive in our everyday lives. If we’re hearing lots of sounds with long reverb tails on them, that suggests we’re in a large room, such as a church. Lots of short ‘early reflections’, we’re probably in a small room. Everything we hear has some reverberation on it before it ends up in our ears (we’ll ignore scientists who work in anechoic chambers for today).
Too many novice programmers don’t know how to use reverb, so they shy away from it, leaving their mixes dryer than Stewart Lee. Or they go the other way and use completely the wrong reverb sound, and get wetter than a Michael McIntyre show. Maybe programmers are confusing acoustic size with acoustic impact? Imagine this text on your page is your tune:
This is your mix,
This is your mix with the correct use of reverb on it,
Here’s your mix with a little too much reverb on it,
And here it is with way too much!
The effective use of reverb will make a component of a mix sound bigger, fuller and more comfortable for your audience. Without it, the sound will be tiny and illogical; think about it, in real life when will you ever hear a big dry sound? The answer is never. Ever! On the other hand, too much reverb and the mix will be wet and flabby, too big for anyone to comprehend.
How to use reverb:
So what do we do then? First, you need a decent reverb unit or plugin, don’t use just any old reverb plugin. I have a theory that the reason that reverb went out of fashion was related to the fact everyone used way to much of it in the eighties. And many of them were using horrible cheap digital units*. There’s no excuse for that today. Invest some money and buy one each of both of these:
1. A traditional digital reverb
2. A convolution reverb.
A convolution reverb unit works by generating reverb tails based on impulse responses, recordings of reverberations from a real-world environment. They sound amazing; the best are extremely realistic and open up a world of possibilities. But you’ll need a traditional digital reverb too, probably a plugin based on classic hardware form the past. Since the late 1970s and up until about five years ago pretty much all reverb on records was simulated in some way, often by a microprocessor delaying audio, feeding it back into itself, doing some clever filtering and sticking it out the other end. It sounds great, if a little synthetic. But who cares? This is the sound of records, and they still sound great now.
Here’s how I use reverb in my own work. Your mileage may vary but most mix engineers I know use this approach or a variation on it:
1. Set up three reverb plugins as send effects on a bus, not as insert effects. The first will be short (less than 0.5 sec) and come from a convolution reverb using a room impulse response. The second will be a traditional digital reverb sound, such as a plate reverb, set to around 1.5 seconds decay. The last will be a ‘third option’, normally reserved for vocals and normally another plate or hall sound.
2. I then balance my sounds without reverb. Please note that I only use the bare minimum of compression at this point too!
3. When I’m happy with my mix, I then start placing my sounds in an imaginary three dimensional space. The shorter reverb sound places the drums and other high energy or rhythmical sound sources at the front of my stage, the larger reverbs put those sounds slightly further back and into a supporting role. The more reverb, the bigger the sound but also how far away it is.
Thinking of your mix as a three dimensional illusion is crucial for a comfortable and exciting result. Without reverb, your mix will sound like it’s stuck inside the speakers. Reverb brings the sounds alive and gives them the opportunity to leap out of headphones!
Why do so many programmers get this bit wrong?
What this all comes down to, time and time again, is the disconnect that bad programmers have between their brains and their ears and their music. They get into the habit of searching for answers to why their work isn’t working with the same cognitive tools that they use to explain why their internet router isn’t connecting to their laptop. This is not how music works. Our ears and our hearts should guide 99% of our musical work, the remaining 1% comes from experience and knowing how to use our equipment. So, from here on, start listening carefully to what’s going on around you. Listen to the difference between the sound of talking voices in a car and in the street. That’s reverb. Listen to the difference between the sound of tune in a club or in your iPhone headphones. That’s reverb. Listen to the sound of you brushing your teeth in a tiled bathroom. That’s reverb. And then, listen very carefully to the difference between your lifeless, static, two-dimensional mixes and three dimensional panoramas of the artists you most admire.
*Actually, the MIDIverb does have some great uses and you can probably pick one up for nothing at a jumble sale now if you look hard enough. Just don’t use it as your primary reverb tool.
Steve Hillier is a songwriter, DJ and record producer, who has worked with everyone from Keane to Gary Numan. Steve is also a journalist and music technology expert, writing for Future Music & BBC Worldwide. Steve teaches Music Business and Logic Music Production Online at Point Blank Music School.
For more inspiration on using reverb have a look at these videos:
Listen to Mike Koglin: Reverse Vocal FX in Ableton:
Jonny Miller: Reverb – Dub FX
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6 Responses to “Learn How To Mix In 3D: Steve Hillier Tips on Mastering Reverb”
Lost in Musik says:
November 23rd, 2011 at 3:50 am
Cool article and well put. With so much processing power I have to make a real effort to use send efx these days, still cause think you do get a more coherent sound
January 23rd, 2012 at 3:13 pm
I’m very interested in creating music and quickly picked up on the importance or reverb. Though I have written very little music thus far (I’m still in the process of learning theory), I did find this somewhat useful. When using the awful basicness that is GarageBand, I find that around 20-30% reverb is a good basis for any digital audio. What I’m curious about is are there any good software reverbs that can be purchased.
Dr. G says:
January 25th, 2012 at 4:41 pm
Thanks for the tips.
Love that monitor speaker in the picture. Can you tell me what kind it is? Is it vintage?
April 22nd, 2012 at 4:58 pm
I enjoyed reading this article. I found it pretty informative, but I had an issue with the beginning of it though.
I don’t think you can really say that writing a composition starting with the drums is ‘wrong’ because its a subjective matter and is totally up to the one composing. If that works for whomever is writing the music then it works. You also don’t really give any objective evidence as to why its wrong either. You just ask a somewhat irrelevant question about The Beatles. How do you know that they didn’t write the drums first for some songs? Were you there in the studio?
At the core, music production is about experimentation. The only way one will ever truly learn what works best, and what they like best, is by messing with settings, formats, and modes. It is about creativity and I don’t think somebody giving tips about music production should discourage that.
January 9th, 2013 at 12:07 am
I highly suggest ArtsAcoustic Reverb as a fantastic traditional digital reverb. I love how realistic it sounds, and I actually generally create my own reverb with it as insert effects, and use sends mainly for mass effects on a drum kit, like drum room reverb, tight compression, etc. I don’t recall ever using sends any other way at this particular moment, but I just haven’t found any moment where I could have. 😛
Space 16 Mastering & Mixing says:
June 12th, 2013 at 12:22 pm
Very good article, reverb can be mis understood alot of times but spending alot of time with the reverb plugins you have and understanding how each control effects the sound is a must.